Commonplace Book – Pages 21-24
Other Knights of King Arthur
* Sir Ulfius * Sir Bloyse * Sir Gwyniarte * Sir Bellias * Sir Marrys * Sir Pynel * Sir Caulas * Sir Lyoneses * Sir Ladynas * Sir Torre * Sir Petipace * Sir Garnysh * Sir Balan * Sir Brastius * Sir Flaundres * Sir Badovin * Sir Lucas * Sir Bellaus * Sir Gwynas * Sir Pharyaunce * Sir Graciens * Sir Abellyus * Sir Blamoure * Sir Garlot * Sir Bagdemagus * Sir Jordanus * Sir Emerause * Sir Gryfflet * Sir Meliot * Sir Annesians * Sir Bryaunte * Sir Bloyas * Sir Morians * Sir Phelot * Sir Alocrdyne * Sir Balin * Sir Launceor
Sir Cologrenant (Colgrevance): Cousin to Sir Ywain; a Knight at the Round Table. He dies during the Grail Quest while trying to stop Sir Lionel from killing Sir Bors. Bors wouldn’t fight Lionel, and Lionel slays Colgrevance and goes after Bors until God renders him immobile. Or, he died while trying to catch Lancelot and Guenevere together.
Sir Palamedes (Palomides): He was a Sarocen pagan who converted to Christianity.
To the Greeks, Celts were called “Keltoi.” Germains called them “Kelten.” The French softened it to “Celtes.”
The Celts introduced to northern Europe the use of iron. Iron was used for tools and weapons, abundant, it was more efficient than bronze in felling men and forest, tilling the soil, and providing transport.
Celts introduced soap to the Greeks and Romans, invented chain armor, were the first to shoe horses, and give shape to handsaws, chisels, files, and other tools. They developed seamless iron rims for their wheels; set our standard 4 ft – 81/2 in railroad gauge with chariots; pioneered the iron plowshare, the rotary flour mill, and were among the first to secure womens’ rights.
The city-name Paris recalled the Paris II, a Celtic tribe, while the Rheime recalls the Remi tribe. Helvetia, a poetic name for Switzerland, comes from Helvett, and Belgium from Belgae. The Boli descended into Italy, left their name in Bologna, and made their home in Bohemia. To the Romans, Celts were called Galli. And the Gauls of Caesar’s Gallic wars were related to the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland, to the Celts of Galicia in Spain and Galicia in Poland and to the Galatians in Asia Minor, to whom Saint Paul sent an Epistle.
From Salt Mount in Salzberg, Hallistatt, men have burrowed for salt for 3,000 years. In 1734, miners discovered a Celt buried in salt. He was probably caught in the avalanche of about 300 B.C. Miners carried him down to the village, but superstitious villagers feared this “devil” and the priest cast him out. A pagan, he couldn’t receive a Christian burial in the churchyard.
In 387 B.C. the Gauls sacked Rome; others pushed eastward along the Danube, traversed the Balkans and in 279 B.C. pillaged the oracle at Delphi.
Some 20,000 Gauls crossed the Hellespont into Asia Minor, settling around Ankara, a region henceforth known as Galatia.
The Celts would use giant bar-headed war trumpets, chariots, horses, slingstones, spears, and swords in battle. They would cut off the heads of enemies, and attach them to the necks of horses. Singing in triumph as they carried off these trophies, they nailed them upon their houses. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies and preserved them carefully in a chest and displayed them with pride to strangers.
Queen Boudicca of the Inceni took to the warpath in her chariot. She shredded Roman legions and burned Londinium to the ground.
Druids exercised great political influence, foreseeing the future, fixing auspicious times for enterprises, educating the young nobility and conserving traditions. In Irish legend, a Druid, after drinking a bull’s blood and eating its flesh, could identify the next king in a dream.
A warrior’s horse was his badge of nobility, commoners fought on foot. Epona, the horse goddess, is represented more widely than any other Celtic deity.
Commonplace Book – Pages 17-19
The Hippocratic Oath
I swear by AEsculapius, Hygeia, and Panacea and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment the following Oath:
To consider dear to me as my parents him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and if necessary to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art; to live in common with him and if they so desire without fee or written promise; to impart to my sons and the sons of the master who taught me and the disciples who have enrolled themselves and have agreed to the rules of the profession, but to these alone the precepts and the instruction.
To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug, not give advice which may cause his death.
Nor will I give a woman a pessary to procure abortion.
But I will preserve the purity of my life and my art. I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest. I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art.
In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.
All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal.
If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all time; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot.
Enchanted Objects of Arthurian Legend
Caliburn: Original Latin name for Excalibur
Calwdvwlch: Sword of King Arthur before Excalibur
Carnwennan: Knife or dagger of King Arthur
Excalibur: King Arthur’s sword. In one version, he drew it from a stone, in another, he received it from the Lady of the Lake
Rhongowennan: Spear of King Arthur in Welsh legend
Pridwen: The shield of King Arthur. According to Welsh tradition, it was called Wynebgwthucher
Pridwen, Prydwen: Ship of King Arthur
Coreiseuse: Sword of King Ban
Galatine: Sword of Sir Gawain
Bleeding Lance: Sometimes known as the Spear of Longinus. The spear would continuously bleed. Belonged to Sir Percevale and Sir Galahad.
Fail-not: Bow of Sir Tristan
Ring of Dispel: Ring given to Lancelot by the Lady of the Lake, which can dispel enchantment