Commonplace Book – Pages 21-24
Other Knights of King Arthur
* Sir Ulfius * Sir Bloyse * Sir Gwyniarte * Sir Bellias * Sir Marrys * Sir Pynel * Sir Caulas * Sir Lyoneses * Sir Ladynas * Sir Torre * Sir Petipace * Sir Garnysh * Sir Balan * Sir Brastius * Sir Flaundres * Sir Badovin * Sir Lucas * Sir Bellaus * Sir Gwynas * Sir Pharyaunce * Sir Graciens * Sir Abellyus * Sir Blamoure * Sir Garlot * Sir Bagdemagus * Sir Jordanus * Sir Emerause * Sir Gryfflet * Sir Meliot * Sir Annesians * Sir Bryaunte * Sir Bloyas * Sir Morians * Sir Phelot * Sir Alocrdyne * Sir Balin * Sir Launceor
Sir Cologrenant (Colgrevance): Cousin to Sir Ywain; a Knight at the Round Table. He dies during the Grail Quest while trying to stop Sir Lionel from killing Sir Bors. Bors wouldn’t fight Lionel, and Lionel slays Colgrevance and goes after Bors until God renders him immobile. Or, he died while trying to catch Lancelot and Guenevere together.
Sir Palamedes (Palomides): He was a Sarocen pagan who converted to Christianity.
To the Greeks, Celts were called “Keltoi.” Germains called them “Kelten.” The French softened it to “Celtes.”
The Celts introduced to northern Europe the use of iron. Iron was used for tools and weapons, abundant, it was more efficient than bronze in felling men and forest, tilling the soil, and providing transport.
Celts introduced soap to the Greeks and Romans, invented chain armor, were the first to shoe horses, and give shape to handsaws, chisels, files, and other tools. They developed seamless iron rims for their wheels; set our standard 4 ft – 81/2 in railroad gauge with chariots; pioneered the iron plowshare, the rotary flour mill, and were among the first to secure womens’ rights.
The city-name Paris recalled the Paris II, a Celtic tribe, while the Rheime recalls the Remi tribe. Helvetia, a poetic name for Switzerland, comes from Helvett, and Belgium from Belgae. The Boli descended into Italy, left their name in Bologna, and made their home in Bohemia. To the Romans, Celts were called Galli. And the Gauls of Caesar’s Gallic wars were related to the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland, to the Celts of Galicia in Spain and Galicia in Poland and to the Galatians in Asia Minor, to whom Saint Paul sent an Epistle.
From Salt Mount in Salzberg, Hallistatt, men have burrowed for salt for 3,000 years. In 1734, miners discovered a Celt buried in salt. He was probably caught in the avalanche of about 300 B.C. Miners carried him down to the village, but superstitious villagers feared this “devil” and the priest cast him out. A pagan, he couldn’t receive a Christian burial in the churchyard.
In 387 B.C. the Gauls sacked Rome; others pushed eastward along the Danube, traversed the Balkans and in 279 B.C. pillaged the oracle at Delphi.
Some 20,000 Gauls crossed the Hellespont into Asia Minor, settling around Ankara, a region henceforth known as Galatia.
The Celts would use giant bar-headed war trumpets, chariots, horses, slingstones, spears, and swords in battle. They would cut off the heads of enemies, and attach them to the necks of horses. Singing in triumph as they carried off these trophies, they nailed them upon their houses. They embalm in cedar oil the heads of the most distinguished enemies and preserved them carefully in a chest and displayed them with pride to strangers.
Queen Boudicca of the Inceni took to the warpath in her chariot. She shredded Roman legions and burned Londinium to the ground.
Druids exercised great political influence, foreseeing the future, fixing auspicious times for enterprises, educating the young nobility and conserving traditions. In Irish legend, a Druid, after drinking a bull’s blood and eating its flesh, could identify the next king in a dream.
A warrior’s horse was his badge of nobility, commoners fought on foot. Epona, the horse goddess, is represented more widely than any other Celtic deity.
Commonplace Book – Pages 17-19
The Hippocratic Oath
I swear by AEsculapius, Hygeia, and Panacea and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment the following Oath:
To consider dear to me as my parents him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and if necessary to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art; to live in common with him and if they so desire without fee or written promise; to impart to my sons and the sons of the master who taught me and the disciples who have enrolled themselves and have agreed to the rules of the profession, but to these alone the precepts and the instruction.
To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug, not give advice which may cause his death.
Nor will I give a woman a pessary to procure abortion.
But I will preserve the purity of my life and my art. I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest. I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art.
In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.
All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal.
If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all time; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot.
Enchanted Objects of Arthurian Legend
Caliburn: Original Latin name for Excalibur
Calwdvwlch: Sword of King Arthur before Excalibur
Carnwennan: Knife or dagger of King Arthur
Excalibur: King Arthur’s sword. In one version, he drew it from a stone, in another, he received it from the Lady of the Lake
Rhongowennan: Spear of King Arthur in Welsh legend
Pridwen: The shield of King Arthur. According to Welsh tradition, it was called Wynebgwthucher
Pridwen, Prydwen: Ship of King Arthur
Coreiseuse: Sword of King Ban
Galatine: Sword of Sir Gawain
Bleeding Lance: Sometimes known as the Spear of Longinus. The spear would continuously bleed. Belonged to Sir Percevale and Sir Galahad.
Fail-not: Bow of Sir Tristan
Ring of Dispel: Ring given to Lancelot by the Lady of the Lake, which can dispel enchantment
Commonplace Book – Pages 13-17
Charge Given to the Knights by King Arthur
God make you a good man and fail not of beauty. The Round Table was founded in patience, humility and meekness. Thou art never to do outrageously, nor murder, and always to flee treason, by no means cruel, and always to do ladies, damosels, and gentle women succor. Also to take no battles in a wrongful quarrel for no law nor for no world’s goods.
Thou shouldst be for all ladies and fight for their quarrels and ever be courteous and never refuse mercy to him that asketh mercy, for a knight that is courteous and kind and gentle has favor in every place. Thou shouldst never hold a lady or gentle woman against her will.
Thou must keep thy word to all and not be feeble of good believeth and faith. Right must be defended against might and distress must be protected. Thou must know good from evil and the vain of glory of the world, because great pride and bobauce maketh great sorrow. Should anyone require ye of any quest so that it is not to thy shame, thou shouldst fulfill the desire.
Ever it is a worshipful knights deed to help another worshipful knight when he seeth him a great danger, for ever a worshipful man should loath to see a worshipful man shamed, for it is only he that is of no worship and who faireth with cowardice that shall never show gentleness or no manner of goodness where he seeth a man in any danger, but always a good man will do another man as he would have done to himself.
“It should never be said that a small brother has injured or slain another brother. Thou shouldst not fail in these things: charity, abstinence, and truth, No knight shall win worship but if he be of worship himself and of good living, and that loveth God and dreadeth God then else he geteth no worship here be ever so hardly.
An envious knight shall never win worship for an envious man wants to win worship he shall be dishonored twice therefore without any, and for this cause all men of worship hate an envious man and will show him no favor.
Sir Lancelot: Son of King Ban of Benwick and Queen Elaine. Father of Sir Galahad by Elaine of Astolat. As a child, was left by the lake shore and raised by The Lady. Lover of Queen Guenevere.
Sir Gawaine: Nephew of King Arthur. Son of Lot of Orkney and Morgause. Brother of Agravain, Gaheris, and Gareth. Half-brother of Mordred. Defeated the Green Knight.
Sir Geraint: Eldest son of King Erbin of Dumnonia, who was a Knight of Devon. Married Lady Enid of Caer-Teim. Inherited the Dumnonian throne in c. 497. Died at the Battle of Llongborth.
Sir Gareth: Youngest brother of Sir Gawaine. Always acted chivalrous to Lynette and rescued Lyonore.
Sir Galahad: Son of Lancelot and Elaine. Descendant of King David and Nascien. Only one to find the Holy Grail and see its secrets. Pulled the sword from the stone, and later obtained the Sword of David.
Sir Bors de Ganis: Son of King Bors of Gaunes and Evainne. Brother of Lionel and cousin of Lancelot and Hector. Father of Helin le Blanc, later Emperor of Constantinople. Died in the Crusades.
Sir Kay: Foster-brother of Arthur, son of Erector. Married Adrivete, daughter of King Cador of Northumberland. Said to have a sons named Garanwyn and Gronosis, and a daughter named Kelemon.
Sir Bedivere: Butler or cup-bearer and constable of King Arthur. Brother of Lucan the Butler. Son was named Amren and a daughter named Eneuavc. Helped fight the Giant of Mont St. Michel and later became Duke of Neustria. Killed in the Roman Campaign.
Sir Girflet: Son of Do of Carduel. Cousin of Lucan the Wine Steward.
Sir Yvain: Son of King Urien. Husband of Laudine and father of Idrus.
Sir Erec: Son of King Lac of Ester-Gales.
Sir Agravain: Son of King Lot of Orkney and Morgause. Second eldest. Killed Sir Lamorak when he was found in bed with Morgause.
Sir Gaheris: Son of King Lot of Orkney and Morgause. Married Lady Lyonnesse’s sister Dame Lynet.
Sir Yvain the Bastard: Illegitimate son of Urien. His mother was the wife of Urien’s seneschal.
Sir Hector: Illegitimate son of King Ban and the daughter of Li Sires des Mares. Half-brother of Lancelot.
Sir Sagremor: Son of Duke Nabur the Unruly. Killed by Mordred.
Sir Lamorak: Son of King Pellinore and brother of Agloual and Percevale. Killed by Sir Gawaine.
Sir Lionel: Son of King Bors of Gaunes and Evainne. Brother of Bors de Ganis. He was Lancelot’s cousin and squire.
Sir Percevale: Raised in ignorance of arms by his mother. Pure enough to heal Anfortas and to become himself the keeper of the Holy Grail.